(পূর্ব প্রকাশের পর)
1) Choice A. Why? Lines 1-9 include examples of how manypeople shop (“millions of shoppers”), how much money they spend (“over$30 billion at retail stores in the month of December alone”), and the manyoccasions that lead to shopping for gifts (“including weddings, birthdays,anniversaries, graduations, and baby showers.”). Combined, these examplesshow how frequently people in the US shop for gifts.
2) Choice B is the best answer. Lines 9-10 state “This frequent experienceof gift-giving can engender ambivalent feelings in gift-givers.” In the subsequentsentences, those “ambivalent” feelings are further exemplified asconflicted feelings, as shopping is said to be something that “[m]any relish”(lines 10-11) and “many dread” (line 14)
3) Choice D is the best answer. In lines 10-13, the authors clearly state thatsome people believe gift-giving can help a relationship because it “offers apowerful means to build stronger bonds with one’s closest peers.”
4) Choice A is the best answer. In lines 10-13, the authors suggest that peoplevalue gift-giving because it may strengthen their relationships with others:”Many relish the opportunity to buy presents because gift-giving offers apowerful means to build stronger bonds with one’s closest peers.
5) Choice A is the best answer. The “deadweight loss” mentioned in the secondparagraph is the significant monetary difference between what a gift-giverwould pay for something and what a gift-recipient would pay for the sameitem. That difference would be predictable to social psychologists, whoseresearch “has found that people often struggle to take account of others’perspectives” (lines 31-34).
6)Choice C is the best answer. Lines 41-44 suggest that gift-givers assumea correlation between the cost of a gift and how well-received it will be:”. . . gift-givers equate how much they spend with how much recipients willappreciate the gift (the more expensive the gift, the stronger a gift-recipient’sfeelings of appreciation).” However, the authors suggest this assumption maybe incorrect or “unfounded” (line 47), as gift-recipients “may not construesmaller and larger gifts as representing smaller and larger signals of thoughtfulnessand consideration” (lines 63-65).
7) Choice C is the best answer. Lines 63-65 suggest that the assumption madeby gift-givers in lines 41-44 may be incorrect. The gift-givers assume thatrecipients will have a greater appreciation for costly gifts than for less costly gifts, but the authors suggest this relationship may be incorrect, as gift recipients”may not construe smaller and larger gifts as representing smallerand larger signals of thoughtfulness and consideration” (lines 63-65).
8) Choice D is the best answer. Lines 53-55 state that “Perhaps givers believethat bigger (i.e., more expensive) gifts convey stronger signals of thoughtfulnessand consideration.” In this context, saying that more expensive gifts”convey” stronger signals means the gifts send, or communicate, strongersignals to the recipients.